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2015, Nokia and National Instruments demonstrated a
2 x 2 MIMO system at 73 GHz using 2 GHz bandwidth,
which provided a 10 Gb/s link over 200 m with better
than 1 msec latency.
7 National Instruments also partnered with AT&T to develop a 5G mmWave channel
measurement tool. The channel sounder provides real-time channel parameter measurement and monitoring
capability. The channel sounder was designed by AT&T
and uses an architecture based on National Instruments’ 28 GHz Transceiver System shown in Figure 10.
This channel sounder captures channel measurements
where all the data is acquired and processed in real-time with the capability to take about 6000 measurements in 15 minutes.
The small size of antennas at mmWave frequencies
enables the use of multiple antennas in phased arrays
and MIMO systems more effectively. MIMO allows a
communications system to use spectrum more efficiently by employing spatial multiplexing and beamforming.
With spatial multiplexing, a base station uses multiple
transmit antennas to beam distinct streams of information to multiple users at the same time using the same
spectrum. Now 5G researchers are looking to massively
increase the number of spatial streams used in a mobile
communications system. Eventually, the 5Ms (mm Wave
massive mimo) are expected to enable the peak performance of these 5G systems. Hybrid beamforming
and MIMO systems will provide significantly increased
speeds using directive beam configurations compared
mendable service for the 2G, 3G and 4G infrastructure.
Commonly used licensed frequency bands include 23,
26, 38 and 60 GHz. 5G deployments are expected to
use upgraded links to handle increased data capacities.
While the use of mm Wave frequencies is assured in
backhaul and FWA, efforts are still on the way to enable
its use in cellular access. In order to evaluate the radio
environment for mmWaves communication, especially
the systems with multiple antennae, channel sounding
efforts were started in the last decade. Many research
organizations have been studying and experimenting at
different frequency bands all over the world. At NIWeek
s Fig. 10 28 GHz Channel sounder by AT&T and National
Instruments (courtesy National Instruments).